How do SSRIs work

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2-Minute Neuroscience: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

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SSRIs are the most widely-used treatment for depression, and have been since their introduction to the market in the late 1980s. They were formulated based on the hypothesis that depression is due to low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. In this video, I discuss how SSRIs work, along with some questions that have been raised about the serotonin hypothesis since the introduction of SSRIs. TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. SSRIs were developed in the 1970s with the goal of treating depression by increasing serotonin levels. This goal was formulated based on the serotonin hypothesis of depression, which suggests that depression is caused by low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. SSRIs work by inhibiting a mechanism called reuptake. In reuptake, a protein called a transporter transports excess neurotransmitter molecules out of the synaptic cleft, usually back into the neuron that released them. SSRIs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. By inhibiting the removal of serotonin from the synaptic cleft, this causes levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft to rise. These increases in serotonin levels have been hypothesized to be the mechanism by which SSRIs can treat the symptoms of depression. There are reasons now, however, to believe that there must be more to the mechanism of SSRIs than just changing serotonin levels. For example, when someone begins taking an SSRI, they generally have to wait about 4 weeks before their symptoms improve. Evidence suggests, however, that their serotonin levels rise as quickly as within an hour after taking the medication. Thus, it seems likely that SSRIs may affect serotonin levels, which then leads to other effects that influence the symptoms of depression. Therefore it’s probable that more than serotonin levels must be changed for SSRIs to work, which suggests that depression isn’t caused only by low serotonin levels. Additionally, evidence has now emerged that questions the effectiveness of SSRIs. Some research has found they do not work much better than placebos, and may only benefit those who are most severely depressed, which is a minority of patients who actually take the drugs. REFERENCES: Invernizzi R, Velasco C, Bramante M, Longo A, Samanin R. Effect of 5-HT1A receptor antagonists on citalopram-induced increase in extracellular serotonin in the frontal cortex, striatum and dorsal hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 1997 Apr-May;36(4-5):467-73. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Med. 2008 Feb;5(2):e45. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045.

How do antidepressants work? - Neil R. Jeyasingam

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Dig into the discovery of antidepressant drugs, how they work, and what we still don’t know about depression. In the 1950s, the discovery of two new drugs sparked what would become a multi-billion dollar market for antidepressants. Neither drug was intended to treat depression at all— many doctors and scientists believed psychotherapy was the only approach to treatment. Neil R. Jeyasingam details the decades-long journey that followed and how it revolutionized our understanding of depression. Lesson by Neil R. Jeyasingam, directed by Skirmanta Jakaitė, Art Shot. Support Our Non-Profit Mission Support us on Patreon: 🤍 Check out our merch: 🤍 Connect With Us Sign up for our newsletter: 🤍 Follow us on Facebook: 🤍 Find us on Twitter: 🤍 Peep us on Instagram: 🤍 Keep Learning View full lesson: 🤍 Dig deeper with additional resources: 🤍 Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! Jezabel, Adriano Fontes, Xiao Yu, Melissa Suarez, SpartacusDMR, Brian A. Dunn, Francisco Amaya, Daisuke Goto, Matt Switzler, Leonardo Monrroy, Sumedh Ghaisas, Guhten, Maryam, Bethany Connor, Jeremy Shimanek, Mark Byers, Avinash Amarnath, Xuebicoco, Rare Media, Rayo, Po Foon Kwong, NinjaBoffin, Jesse Jurman, Josue Perez Miranda, Scott Markley, Elija Peterson, Ovidiu Mrd, Lawrence Wu, Xavier Dupont, Aravind Battaje, Nathan Giusti, Helen Lee, Anthony Benedict, Karthik Balsubramanian, John Hong, Annastasshia Ames, Sebastiaan Hols, Aries SW, Amy Lopez, Liz Candee, Kathryn Vacha, Anthony Arcis, Jeffrey Segrest, Karmi Nguyen, Yelena Baykova, Harshita Jagdish Sahijwani, Nick Johnson, Carlos H. Costa, Mohamed Elsayed and Les Howard.

SSRI Antidepressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors | Mental Health Nursing Pharmacology

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SSRIs (selective serotonin reputake inhibitors) antidepressants mental health nursing pharmacology NCLEX review. Quiz: 🤍 Notes: 🤍 SSRIs work by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin by the pre-synaptic neuron, which helps increase serotonin levels in the brain. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are prescribed for depression, panic, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and PTSD. Common SSRIs prescribed in the US include: Paroxetine, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxmine, Sertraline, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Vilazodone The nurse should monitor the patient for serotonin syndrome, common side effects (nausea, diarrhea, loss in libido, erectile dysfunction, insomnia, dry mouth), and should educate the patient to never abruptly stop taking the medication because discontinuation syndrome can occur. #ssri #antidepressants #nclex #nursing Website: 🤍 More Videos: 🤍 Nursing Gear: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Popular Playlists: NCLEX Reviews: 🤍 Fluid & Electrolytes: 🤍 Nursing Skills: 🤍

SSRIs: How They Can Help Depression & Anxiety, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors | Stanford

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This video is all about Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (or SSRIs) and how they can help people with depression and anxiety. Dr. DeBattista explains what SSRIs are, what they treat, how effective they are, and what side effects to expect. If you or someone you know has been prescribed an SSRI such as Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Lexapro, Celexa, Luvox or any other medication for depression or another condition, then you are not alone. SSRIs or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in the world. 0:00 Introduction 0:46 What are SSRIs? How do they work? 1:54 What are SSRIs used for? 2:11 Why are SSRIs so commonly prescribed? 2:46 How effective are SSRIs? 3:06 What are the side effects of SSRIs? 5:26 How long does it take for an SSRI to work? 5:40 How long do you need to take an SSRI? National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 🤍 1-800-273-TALK 1-800-273-8255 Dr. Charles DeBattista is a Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Director of the Depression Research Clinic at Stanford University. The information in this video was accurate as of the upload date, 7/1/2022. For information purposes only. Consult your local medical authority or your healthcare practitioner for advice. This video is a production of the Stanford Center for Health Education team, in collaboration with Stanford Medicine and the Stanford Center for Professional Development. At the Stanford Center for Health Education, we believe that expanding access to engaging education has the power to change behaviors, improve health, and save lives. Stanford Center for Health Education Website: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 LinkedIn: 🤍 Digital Medic Website: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍

Pharmacology - ANTIDEPRESSANTS - SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, MAOIs, Lithium ( MADE EASY)

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👉📝WANT STUDY NOTES FOR THIS PRESENTATION? 👉Join Patreon at 🤍 Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorders as well as other conditions including anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), eating disorders, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder and some chronic pain. Most antidepressants act by increasing the synaptic availability of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine. This pharmacology lecture covers topics such as monoamine hypothesis of depression, bipolar disorder, role of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, monoamine receptors, mechanism of action of antidepressants; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), atypical antidepressants, and Lithium. Antidepressants mentioned include: Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Venlafaxine, Desvenlafaxine, Duloxetine, Levomilnacipran, Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Doxepin, Imipramine, Maprotiline, Nortriptyline, Protriptyline, Isocarboxazid, Phenelzine, Tranylcypromine, Selegiline, Bupropion, Mirtazapine, Trazodone, Nefazodone, Vilazodone, and Vortioxetine. Thanks for watching and don't forget to SUBSCRIBE, hit the LIKE button👍 and click the BELL button🔔 for future notifications!!! 00:00 Monoamine Hypothesis 1:55 Overview 2:36 Serotonergic & Noradrenergic neurons 4:40 SSRIs 7:05 SNRIs 8:30 TCAs 10:52 MAOIs 13:44 Atypical Antidepressants 16:07 Lithium

How Do SSRIs Work and Why Do SSRIs Take So Long To Work

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How Do SSRIs Work and Why Do SSRIs Take So Long To Work This video reviews the mechanism of action of SSRIs and explains why it takes 4-6 weeks to have a therapeutic effect SSRIs are anti-depressant medications that include: Zoloft (sertraline), Lexapro (escitalopram), and Celexa (citalopram), Luvox (fluvoxamine), Prozac (fluoxetine), and Paxil (paroxetine), To support the channel (note: it would just be support, there is essentially no extra content in joining): 🤍 0:00 Intro, And it keeps coming 0:10 SSRI Intro 0:18 What Happens At the Neuron Level With SSRIs 0:36 SERT sucks (like a vacuum) 0:51 SSRIs block SERT 2:23 A Few Moments Later..... 2:42 5HT1A Receptors Down-Regulate 3:13 4-6 Weeks Later..... 3:23 Serotonin Releases! 4:13 Humble Closing Remarks 5:50 Outro DO NOT make any medical decisions based on this video, speak with a medical professional. LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The words and other content provided in these videos are not intended and should not be construed as medical advice. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something seen in these videos. The views expressed in these videos have no relation to those of any academic, hospital, practice, or other institution. The views expressed by the author reflect neither the views of his employer, nor even his own views, and may be divorced from reality in a more general sense. Watching these videos does not create a physician-patient relation­ship between you and the author. KEYWORDS: SSRI mechanism of action, How Do SSRIs Work,How Do Antidepressants work ,why do SSRIs take so long to work ,why do ssris take 4-6 weeks ,SSRI mechanism ,How SSRIs work ,how ssri medications work, SSRIs mechanism review, how antidepressants work, SSRI meds, SSRIs, SSRI, antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antidepressants pharmacology, antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, ssris pharmacology, antidepressant medication, psychopharmacology, usmle

How do antidepressants actually work? [SSRIS]

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SSRIS are considered first line treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety and a variety of other conditions. They are some of the most commonly prescribed medications in North America. So how do these medications work? The short answer is they increase the level of serotonin in your brain. Normally excess serotonin in a synapse gets recycled back to the presynaptic neuron. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antagonize or block the serotonin reuptake transporter so that more serotonin is readily available to bind to the post synaptic cleft leading to a positive effect on mood.

How Do Antidepressants (SSRI's) Work?

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Hey guys, hope you found that this video was helpful! The Depression Cure (6 step program to beat depression without drugs): 🤍

How SSRIs Work

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Dr. Carlo Carandang explains how Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) work. SSRIs are the most widely prescribed medications for anxiety and depression. Widely prescribed for: Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) Panic Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

HOW DO ANTIDEPRESSANTS WORK? || SSRIs

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more info about treatments for depression here: 🤍 wooooooo!! hope u liked the video :) It's 4:45 am and I should probably sleep now

Why do antidepressants take so long to work?

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Buy "Memorable Psychiatry," "Memorable Psychopharmacology," and "Memorable Neurology" on Amazon! 🤍 For someone struggling with depression, being told that an antidepressant will take weeks or months to work can be frustrating. Yet this delay is also the key to these medications' ability to help. Find out why in this video. Papers that inspired this talk: Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action. 🤍 How do antidepressants work? New perspectives for refining future treatment approaches. 🤍 All music and video are under the public domain with the following exceptions. Creative Commons license: Background Music: "Divider" by Chris Zabriskie Clouds Timelapse by Vincent Wolf Corporate Building and Clouds Time Lapse by Beachfront Car Driving Through Tunnel Slow Motion by Simon Waldock Medical Pills on White Surface by Videvo Young Couple Sat in front of Detroit Cityscape by Videvo Clock Face Timelapse by Videvo Panning Around Woman Watching Waterfall by Videvo.net, Kiril Dobrev LA Mountain Sunrise by mikesteinkamp Lady Overlooking Ocean by Videvo Rain on Window Rack Focus by AHFilms Ice Cream Melting by mitchp Starting Stopwatch by Videvo Iraqi Militiaman at Sabaa Nissan water plant in Baghdad, Feb 2003 by Christiaan Briggs Close Up of Watch Face by Videvo Child Putting on Shoe by RGB Parade Germs Animated Background by Beachfront Scientist Using Microscope by Videvo Digital Clock Chaotic Time Lapse by Beachfront Speed Radar Timelapse by Beachfront Timelapse Sunset By Jama Jamon by Videvo Crowded Small Bookshop by Videvo Red Ink in Water Slow Motion by PVP Black Cloud by Eugedius Drinking Beer on the Beach at Sunset by Videvo Single use commercial license, purchased: Patient At A Reception At The Woman Doctor by mr_NightMan Taking Pills by Pressmaster Man Talking With His Therapist At Therapy Session by kopitin Infusion by tuomatu Unclear copyright status, but believed to be in the public domain: The Human Brain by Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com Video: 🤍

Antidepressants Make it Harder to Empathize, Harder to Climax, and Harder to Cry. | Julie Holland

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Antidepressants Make it Harder to Empathize, Harder to Climax, and Harder to Cry. Watch the newest video from Big Think: 🤍 Join Big Think Edge for exclusive videos: 🤍 Dr. Julie Holland argues that women are designed by nature to be dynamic and sensitive — women are moody and that is a good thing. Yet millions of women are medicating away their emotions because we are out of sync with our own bodies and we are told that moodiness is a problem to be fixed. One in four women takes a psychiatric drug. If you add sleeping pills to the mix, the statistics become higher. Overprescribed medications can have far-reaching consequences for women in many areas of our lives: sex, relationships, sleep, eating, focus, balance, and aging. Dr. Holland's newest book is titled Moody Bitches: The Truth About the Drugs You’re Taking, the Sleep You’re Missing, the Sex You’re Not Having and What’s Really Making You Crazy. JULIE HOLLAND: Dr. Julie Holland is a board-certified psychiatrist in New York City. From 1996 to 2005, Dr. Holland ran the psychiatric emergency room of Bellevue Hospital on Saturday and Sunday nights. A liaison to the hospital's medical emergency room and toxicology department, she is considered an expert on street drugs and intoxication states, and lectures widely on this topic. She published a paper in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, describing a resurgence of the drug phenomenon smoking marijuana soaked in embalming fluid, which may be a carrier for PCP. She is available for forensic consultations involving embalming fluid intoxication. During her college years, Dr. Holland grew interested in a new drug being used as a psychotherapeutic catalyst, and authored an extensive research paper on MDMA (ecstasy), resulting in multiple television appearances, forensic consultations, and a book, Ecstasy: The Complete Guide. Her other books include The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis, Weekends at Bellevue: Nine Years on the Night Shift at the Psych ER, and her latest release Moody Bitches: The Truth About the Drugs You're Taking, the Sleep You're Missing, the Sex You're Not Having, and What's Really Making You Crazy. Dr. Holland has been quoted as an authority on MDMA in magazine, newspaper and website articles (Harper's, Slate, SF Chronicle, LA Times, Wall Street Journal). Dr. Holland runs a private psychiatry practice in Manhattan, established in 1996. TRANSCRIPT: Julie Holland: The main kind of antidepressant that is the most popularly prescribed are the SSRIs and these are medicines that increase serotonin transmission. And when you start to push on the doses of these SSRIs, you start to lose some sort of quintessential feminine things. First of all it becomes much hard to climax and it becomes much, much harder to cry. But you also see decreases in empathy, in sensitivity, in passion. The simple way of thinking about an SSRI is that you have two brain cells and one is a pitcher and one is a catcher. So pitch, catch. Pitch, catch. So this nerve cell is throwing serotonin across and this one is catching it. What the medicines do is they block the recycling back into the pitcher. So, you know, I’m throwing; I’m throwing. Some of this gets caught; some of it gets dropped. It just doesn’t get over there, but I’ll suck it back in and try again. So if you block the recycling, more is in the middle to get across. So there’s more, you know, the space between the nerve cells is called the synapse. If you block the recycling of the serotonin into the releasing cell, more is available for the catching cell. So it ends up enhancing the transmission. How enhanced serotonergic transmission translates into feeling better and feeling less anxious is much more complicated. But, you know, the simplistic way to think about it is that if you have higher levels of serotonin, if your transmission is better, you will be more relaxed and more happy. It’s a little easier to smile. It’s a little harder to cry. So, you know, I’ve had patients come to me and say, you know, I’ve tried antidepressants before, but they always made me feel like a zombie or they didn’t make me feel like myself. Or I had a patient who said like I cut my finger and I looked down and I saw that it was bleeding and I saw that it was my blood, but I didn’t really feel like connected to my finger or the blood. You know, things like that that are really, really worrisome. Or I’ve had patients say, you know, I was in this situation where I knew I should be crying and I couldn’t cry. And, you know, I felt terrible that I couldn’t express that emotion to bond with ... Read the full transcript at 🤍

What To Avoid When Taking Sertraline, Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Escitalopram (SSRIs)

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What To Avoid If You Are Taking SSRI Antidepressants (ex. Sertraline, Fluoxetine) – Foods and Beverages, Herbal Supplements and Prescription Medications that Interact with SSRIs Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are medications used to treat disorders of depression, anxiety and fibromyalgia. However, their use can cause side effects along with the symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome and serotonin syndrome. There are a variety of dietary factors, herbal supplements and other medications that can interact with SSRIs to worsen side effects. I hope you find this lesson helpful. If you do, please like and subscribe for more lessons like this one! JJ MEDICAL LEGAL DISCLAIMER: JJ Medicine does not provide medical advice, and the information available on this channel does not offer a diagnosis or advice regarding treatment. Information presented in these lessons is for educational purposes ONLY, and information presented here is not to be used as an alternative to a healthcare professional’s diagnosis and treatment of any person/animal. Only a physician or other licensed healthcare professional are able to determine the requirement for medical assistance to be given to a patient. Please seek the advice of your physician or other licensed healthcare provider if you have any questions regarding a medical condition. *AFFILIATE DISCLAIMER: This YouTube Channel uses affiliate links and may earn a commission from associated sales. *IMAGE DISCLAIMER: The content (ex. images) used in this lesson are used in accordance with Fair Use laws and are intended for educational/teaching purposes only* *Subscribe for more free medical lessons* 🤍 - For books and more information on these topics 🤍 Support future lessons and lectures ➜ 🤍 Check out the best tool to help grow your YouTube channel (it’s helped me!) 🤍 Follow me on Twitter! ➜ 🤍 Come join me on Facebook! ➜ 🤍 *Check Out Some of My Other Lessons* Medical Terminology - The Basics - Lesson 1: 🤍 Infectious Disease Playlist 🤍 Dermatology Playlist 🤍 Pharmacology Playlist 🤍 Hematology Playlist 🤍 Rheumatology Playlist 🤍 Endocrinology Playlist 🤍 Nephrology Playlist 🤍 Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway: 🤍 Wnt/B Catenin Signaling Pathway: 🤍 Upper vs. Lower Motor Neuron Lesions: 🤍 Lesson on the Purine Synthesis and Salvage Pathway: 🤍 Gastrulation | Formation of Germ Layers: 🤍 Introductory lesson on Autophagy (Macroautophagy): 🤍

2-Minute Neuroscience: Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)

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Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, or SNRIs, are a common treatment for depression and a variety of other ailments like anxiety disorders and chronic pain. In this video, I discuss how SNRIs work in the brain and how they are proposed to be able to treat the symptoms of depression. TRANSCRIPT: Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or SNRIs, first appeared on the market in 1993 with the introduction of venlafaxine. Several others, like duloxetine, would be introduced in the following decades. Most SNRIs were primarily developed for the treatment of depression, but some are now also used to treat a variety of other conditions like anxiety and chronic pain. The development of SNRIs was guided by research that suggests neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine play a role in depression. Specifically, this research suggests that low levels of these neurotransmitters might contribute to the symptoms of depression. SNRIs work primarily by inhibiting a mechanism called reuptake. In reuptake, a protein called a transporter transports excess neurotransmitter molecules out of the synaptic cleft, typically back into the neuron that released them. SNRIs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. When the removal of serotonin and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft is inhibited, this causes levels of these neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft to rise. These increases in serotonin and norepinephrine levels have been hypothesized to be the mechanism by which SNRIs can treat the symptoms of depression. It should be noted, however, that research suggests the neurobiological mechanism of depression is more complex than a simple neurotransmitter deficiency. Thus, it may be that increasing serotonin and norepinephrine levels leads to other effects that can alleviate the symptoms of depression, or that the drugs have other mechanisms that contribute to their effectiveness. Studies have found SNRIs to be comparable to other popular antidepressants, like SSRIs, in terms of effectiveness. SNRIS are also generally well-tolerated, with problems like nausea, sweating, and loss of appetite being some of the commonly reported side effects-although different snri drugs have different side effect profiles. REFERENCES: Brunello N, Mendlewicz J, Kasper S, Leonard B, Montgomery S, Nelson J, Paykel E, Versiani M, Racagni G. The role of noradrenaline and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002 Oct;12(5):461-75. doi: 10.1016/s0924-977x(02)00057-3. PMID: 12208564. Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Chaimani A, Atkinson LZ, Ogawa Y, Leucht S, Ruhe HG, Turner EH, Higgins JPT, Egger M, Takeshima N, Hayasaka Y, Imai H, Shinohara K, Tajika A, Ioannidis JPA, Geddes JR. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 7;391(10128):1357-1366. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32802-7. Epub 2018 Feb 21. PMID: 29477251; PMCID: PMC5889788. Hillhouse TM, Porter JH. A brief history of the development of antidepressant drugs: from monoamines to glutamate. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Feb;23(1):1-21. doi: 10.1037/a0038550. PMID: 25643025; PMCID: PMC4428540. Lambert O, Bourin M. SNRIs: mechanism of action and clinical features. Expert Rev Neurother. 2002 Nov;2(6):849-58. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2.6.849. PMID: 19810918. Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: a pharmacological comparison. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2014 Mar;11(3-4):37-42. PMID: 24800132; PMCID: PMC4008300.

Are SSRIs Effective? (5 of 11)

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Professor Wayne Drevets examines the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating depression. Not all patients respond well to SSRIs and may need different treatments.

Taking Antidepressants For The First Time

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“I did write some sad songs in college and maybe that was a good outlet but maybe not good enough.” Check out more awesome videos at BuzzFeedVideo! 🤍 Learn more about mental health week - 🤍 MUSIC Live Via Satellite Licensed via Warner Chappell Production Music Inc. SFX provided by Audioblocks.  (🤍) Footage provided by VideoBlocks 🤍 Made by BFMP 🤍buzzfeed.com/videoteam BASED ON THIS BUZZFEED POST: 🤍buzzfeed.com/jerrysoda/antidepressed GET MORE BUZZFEED: 🤍buzzfeed.com/videoteam 🤍facebook.com/buzzfeedvideo 🤍instagram.com/buzzfeedvideo 🤍buzzfeed.com/video 🤍youtube.com/buzzfeedvideo 🤍youtube.com/buzzfeedyellow 🤍youtube.com/buzzfeedblue 🤍youtube.com/buzzfeedviolet BUZZFEED VIDEO BuzzFeed Motion Picture’s flagship channel. Sometimes funny, sometimes serious, always shareable. New videos posted daily! Subscribe to BuzzFeedVideo today! 🤍

SSRI Antidepressant Side Effects (& Why They Occur) | Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Citalopram

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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) Side Effects (& Why They Occur) | Paroxetine, Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Citalopram Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are medications used to treat disorders of depression, anxiety and fibromyalgia. These medications inhibit the reuptake of serotonin back into the presynaptic neuron, leading to increased levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. SSRIs can lead to particular side effects, from their normal use and may also cause antidepressant discontinuation syndrome and serotonin syndrome. In this lesson, we discuss these side effects along with the symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome and serotonin syndrome. I hope you find this lesson helpful. If you do, please like and subscribe for more lessons like this one! JJ MEDICAL LEGAL DISCLAIMER: JJ Medicine does not provide medical advice, and the information available on this channel does not offer a diagnosis or advice regarding treatment. Information presented in these lessons is for educational purposes ONLY, and information presented here is not to be used as an alternative to a healthcare professional’s diagnosis and treatment of any person/animal. Only a physician or other licensed healthcare professional are able to determine the requirement for medical assistance to be given to a patient. Please seek the advice of your physician or other licensed healthcare provider if you have any questions regarding a medical condition. *AFFILIATE DISCLAIMER: This YouTube Channel uses affiliate links and may earn a commission from associated sales. *IMAGE DISCLAIMER: The content (ex. images) used in this lesson are used in accordance with Fair Use laws and are intended for educational/teaching purposes only* *Subscribe for more free medical lessons* 🤍 - For books and more information on these topics 🤍 Support future lessons and lectures ➜ 🤍 Check out the best tool to help grow your YouTube channel (it’s helped me!) 🤍 Follow me on Twitter! ➜ 🤍 Come join me on Facebook! ➜ 🤍 *Check Out Some of My Other Lessons* Medical Terminology - The Basics - Lesson 1: 🤍 Infectious Disease Playlist 🤍 Dermatology Playlist 🤍 Pharmacology Playlist 🤍 Hematology Playlist 🤍 Rheumatology Playlist 🤍 Endocrinology Playlist 🤍 Nephrology Playlist 🤍 Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway: 🤍 Wnt/B Catenin Signaling Pathway: 🤍 Upper vs. Lower Motor Neuron Lesions: 🤍 Lesson on the Purine Synthesis and Salvage Pathway: 🤍 Gastrulation | Formation of Germ Layers: 🤍 Introductory lesson on Autophagy (Macroautophagy): 🤍

How SSRIs and SNRIs Work For Anxiety

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This video brought to you by AnxietyBoss.com and Dr. Carlo Carandang, MD. This video explains how SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) and SNRIs (Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) work to decrease anxiety.

Treating depression with antidepressants

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How do antidepressants treat depression? What are the side effects of different antidepressants? Covers MAOIs, TCAs, and SSRIs

The 'extreme' side-effects of antidepressants - BBC News

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People who say their lives have been ruined by commonly prescribed antidepressants, known as SSRIs, are taking their case to Parliament on Wednesday. Claire Hanley says she tried to take her own life after taking them. Please subscribe HERE 🤍 World In Pictures 🤍 Big Hitters 🤍 Just Good News 🤍

How Long Does it Take for Antidepressants to Work?

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Antidepressants typically take several weeks of continuous use before they work. If you need something quickly because of heightened anxiety, taking an extra dosage of an antidepressant will do nothing. However, taking an anxiety dosage of anti-anxiety medication [as prescribed by your physician] can work very well. Ron Winchel, MD, with 🤍ColumbiaPsych shares more how about how to cope with anxiety and depression. #AskTheExpert #Anxiety #Depression Follow and subscribe to Psych Hub: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 Learning about mental health is crucial for us all to imagine a better future for everyone. Psych Hub's Mental Health Ally Certification learning hubs will help you become an important steward of your wellbeing and that of your loved ones. Start learning here: 🤍psychhub.com Psych Hub is an educational service, and the information in this video is not a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone you know are experiencing what you believe are mental health symptoms, please consult with a trained medical professional or a licensed mental health provider. We recommend consulting with a licensed behavioral health provider before trying any of the strategies mentioned in our materials. If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, please call 911. For information on how to find support and treatment, and hotlines for specific issues and audiences, visit Psychhub.com/hotline. If you or someone you know are having thoughts of suicide or self-harm or are experiencing a mental health crisis, please call a national 24/7 hotline. For United States residents, those are: National Suicide Prevention Lifeline For anyone experiencing a mental health crisis. AVAILABILITY: 24/7/365 PHONE NUMBERS: Primary line: 1-800-273-8255 Ayuda en Español: 1-888-628-9454 Video relay service: 800-273-8255 TTY: 800-799-4889 Voice/Caption Phone: 800-273-8255 ONLINE CHAT: suicidepreventionlifeline.org/chat/ WEBSITE: suicidepreventionlifeline.org/ Crisis Text Line For anyone experiencing a mental health crisis. AVAILABILITY: 24/7/365 TEXT NUMBER: US & Canada: Text HOME to 741741 UK: Text 85258 Ireland: Text 086 1800 280 WEBSITE: crisistextline.org © 2021 Psych Hub, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

Antidepressant animation

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The mechanism of action of four majoer groups of antidepressants are illustrated in this animation. Tricyclic antidepressant TCAs, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRTIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs, and monoamine oxidas inhibitors MAOi

Anxiety Meds (SSRI's) What Do You Do. How Do You Choose (Celexa, Zoloft, Prozac, Lexapro, Paxil?)

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Anxiety Meds (SSRI's) What Do You Do. How Do You Choose (Celexa, Zoloft, Prozac, Lexapro, Paxil?) Youtube Channel: 🤍 Website: 🤍 Bob and Chris the Pharmacist discuss how to choose anxiety medications as well as what you can do for your anxiety. Video Chapters: 0:01 Intro 0:35 Topic 0:55 What is SSRI 1:20 What Does It Do 2:30 What Happens When You Get Off Medication 4:02 What If You Miss A Dose 5:20 Do You Need To Be On This 6:15 How Many People Are On It 7:12 History 8:40 Brief Side Effects 9:20 When Do They Start Working 11:17 Are They The Same 11:35 Where They End Up At 12:30 Best/Worst Performing 13:25 When Do You Know If It's Working 14:25 Doctor's Checkup 15:00 How Long Does It Take 16:30 How Long Do You Stay On The Drug 18:10 How Are They Stored 18:45 Can You Come Dependent 19:34 In Depth Common Side Effects 21:53 Outro Patient Resources: National Alliance on Mental Illness 🤍nami.org 1-800-950-NAMI Anxiety and Depression Association of America 🤍adaa.org National Institute of Mental Health 🤍ninh.nih.gov Help Finding a Therapist 1-800-THERAPIST National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK American Psychological Association Crisis Text Line Text HOME to 741741 This Week's Giveaway: We are giving away a Pete’s Choice Balance Pad!!! This is a giveaway for US customers only. Giveaway Link: 🤍 Purchase Link: 🤍 Discount: 5% off with discount code 05BobBrad Our videos offer the best "get fit , stay healthy, and pain-free" information directed toward people 0 to 101 years old. Physical Therapists Bob Schrupp and Brad Heineck have over 50 years of combined. We try to add a twist of our humor into each video in our quest to be the "Most Famous Physical Therapists on the Internet" In our opinion of course!!! Subscribe to us now and join the fun. Not only will these videos provide outstanding health information on treating yourself at home, we also do product reviews. For our favorite products on Amazon click on this link: 🤍 Visit us on our other social media platforms: Website: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Bob and Brad’s Products: Grip and Forearm Strengthener: 🤍 Wall Anchor: 🤍 Booyah Stik: 🤍 Knee Glide: 🤍 Fit Glide: 🤍 Massage Gun: 🤍 Hanging Handles: 🤍 Resistance Bands: 🤍 Pull Up Bands: 🤍 If you order from the Bob and Brad Store Links, you will receive 15% off your purchase. Check out our shirts, mugs, bags and more in our Bob and Brad merchandise shop here: 🤍 Bob & Brad Amazon Store: 🤍 Other Products We Love: 🤍 Check out The Bob & Brad Crew on YouTube by clicking here: 🤍 Want to help translate our videos? We would so love the help! 🤍 Medical Disclaimer All information, content, and material of this website is for informational purposes only and are not intended to serve as a substitute for the consultation, diagnosis, and/or medical treatment of a qualified physician or healthcare provider. Affiliate disclaimer: Keep in mind that we may receive commissions when you click our links and make purchases. However, this does not impact our reviews and comparisons. We are highly selective in our products and try our best to keep things fair and balanced in order to help you make the best choice for you.

Depression is not caused by low levels of serotonin, new study suggests

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For decades, scientists have believed depression is linked to lower levels of serotonin in the brain. But a new study suggests that may not be the case. Dr. Mitch Prinstein, chief science officer at the American Psychological Association, joins CBS News' John Dickerson to discuss the study's findings. #news #depression #mentalhealth CBS News Streaming Network is the premier 24/7 anchored streaming news service from CBS News and Stations, available free to everyone with access to the Internet. The CBS News Streaming Network is your destination for breaking news, live events and original reporting locally, nationally and around the globe. Launched in November 2014 as CBSN, the CBS News Streaming Network is available live in 91 countries and on 30 digital platforms and apps, as well as on CBSNews.com and Paramount+. Subscribe to the CBS News YouTube channel: 🤍 Watch CBS News: 🤍 Download the CBS News app: 🤍 Follow CBS News on Instagram: 🤍 Like CBS News on Facebook: 🤍 Follow CBS News on Twitter: 🤍 Subscribe to our newsletters: 🤍 Try Paramount+ free: 🤍 For video licensing inquiries, contact: licensing🤍veritone.com

How Does Zoloft Work - What do SSRIs do?

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If you want a simple explanation about how antidepressants work, this video introduces the process used by SSRIs such as Sertraline, Zoloft, Prozac to regulate the production of Serotonin. Zoloft is sometimes known as Sertraline and as SSRIs work in the same way this video is use for anyone wanting to know how these antidepressants work. So how does zoloft work? When your brain produces Serotonin it gives it a task. On completion of the task, the Serotonin is absorbed back into the bloodstream, this is called reuptake. SSRIs intercept this and allow Serotonin to be recycled! Perfect! When your GP first prescribes antidepressants they will probably choose an SSRI as these are the most common antidepressant with the less severe side effects. The most common SSRI medications include Zoloft (Sertraline), Prozac (Fluoxetine), Celexa (Citalopram). Each of these Antidepressants might achieve slightly different results so if you have a bad reaction don’t be afraid to ask your Dr for advice. I made this video as I was quite clear on the side effects of Sertraline but wasn’t sure what it actually did to my body. I had heard of things like Serotonin and Dopamine before but did know what the role of these chemicals was. I couldn’t find a simple description of why antidepressants do when you take them so decided to make my own video; hopefully you now know how zoloft works and can How does zoloft work. #sertraline #antidepressants #zoloft Need more help? Join the Subscribers Facebook Group and learn more techniques to stop panic attacks or even share your own! 🤍 *Help me keep the Channel alive by donating a dollar - Thank you!* 🤍

How Long Should You Use Antidepressants?

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For patients on antidepressants, it's not always clear when they should stop taking the medicines. WSJ's Andrea Petersen and Rush University Medical Center's Dr. Mark Pollack discuss with Tanya Rivero. Photo illustration: Mike Sudal/The Wall Street Journal; Photo: iStock Subscribe to the WSJ channel here: 🤍 More from the Wall Street Journal: Visit WSJ.com: 🤍 Follow WSJ on Facebook: 🤍 Follow WSJ on Google+: 🤍 Follow WSJ on Twitter: 🤍 Follow WSJ on Instagram: 🤍 Follow WSJ on Pinterest: 🤍 Don’t miss a WSJ video, subscribe here: 🤍 More from the Wall Street Journal: Visit WSJ.com: 🤍 Visit the WSJ Video Center: 🤍 On Facebook: 🤍 On Twitter: 🤍 On Snapchat: 🤍

How Antidepressants Work | How Do SSRIs Work?

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07.10.2018

If you’ve been diagnosed with depression, chances are you’ve been prescribed an antidepressant (whether that’s an SSRI, SNRI, or NDRI) as part of your treatment, but how do antidepressants work? And, what do antidepressants do to the brain? Well, in this quick video I show you a basic overview of how Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) and Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs) are said to work and what these antidepressants do to the brain. If you have any questions, let me know below in the comments area. I hope this video helps you. Enjoy! 😉 PS. This is not a perfect, too-scale, exact representation of neurons within the brain, it’s simply a straight-forward video to give you a quick understanding of the basic process of how antidepressants work (specifically the reuptake inhibitors). For more helpful resources - visit: 🤍 #Antidepressants #HowAntidepressantsWork #HowSSRIsWork

SSRIs pharmacology

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The effect of 5HT1A downregulation and BDNF synthesis in the mechanism of action of SSRIs: 🤍 Visit 🤍 for more

What is Anxiety Medication?

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The physical symptoms of #anxiety can be overwhelming and feel hard to control. CBT and medication are both effective treatments for symptoms of anxiety. #mentalhealth #wellbeing Follow and subscribe to Psych Hub: 🤍 🤍 🤍  🤍  Learning about mental health is crucial for us all to imagine a better future for everyone. Psych Hub's Mental Health Ally Certification learning hubs will help you become an important steward of your wellbeing and that of your loved ones. Start learning here: 🤍psychhub.com Psych Hub is an educational service, and the information in this video is not a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone you know are experiencing what you believe are mental health symptoms, please consult with a trained medical professional or a licensed mental health provider. We recommend consulting with a licensed behavioral health provider before trying any of the strategies mentioned in our materials. If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, please call 911. For information on how to find support and treatment, and hotlines for specific issues and audiences, visit PsychHub.com/Hotline. If you or someone you know are having thoughts of suicide or self-harm or are experiencing a mental health crisis, please call a national 24/7 hotline. For United States residents, those are: National Suicide Prevention Lifeline For anyone experiencing a mental health crisis. AVAILABILITY: 24/7/365 PHONE NUMBERS: Primary line: 1-800-273-8255 Ayuda en Español: 1-888-628-9454 Video relay service: 800-273-8255 TTY: 800-799-4889 Voice/Caption Phone: 800-273-8255 ONLINE CHAT: suicidepreventionlifeline.org/chat/ WEBSITE: suicidepreventionlifeline.org/ Crisis Text Line For anyone experiencing a mental health crisis. AVAILABILITY: 24/7/365 TEXT NUMBER: US & Canada: Text HOME to 741741 UK: Text 85258 Ireland: Text 086 1800 280 WEBSITE: crisistextline.org © 2021 Psych Hub, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

Treating OCD in Adults: Dosing for OCD

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Cognitive behavioral therapy is key in treating patients with OCD, but so is medication. Rogers’ Dr. Mark Rossing, medical director OCD and anxiety adult residential care, explains the role of medication and what’s considered appropriate dosing. If you or someone you know is struggling, Rogers can help. Visit rogersbh.org or call 800-767-4411. Rogers Behavioral Health: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 YouTube: 🤍 LinkedIn: 🤍

Are antidepressants ineffective for teens?

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Dr. Roshini Raj discusses a new study that says many antidepressants don't work on teenagers.

Dr. Jordan Rullo discusses antidepressants and sexual dysfunction

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If you are a women taking an antidepressant and experience sexual dysfunction, you are not alone. One in six women in the U.S. take antidepressants, and sexual dysfunction is a common side effect.

SSRIs and New Antidepressants

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Review of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other newer antidepressants.

Antidepressants: SSRI, SNRI & Tricyclic Antidepressatns. Citalopram Prozac Amitriptyline

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SKIP AHEAD: 2:20 – Mechanism of Antidepressants 3:16 – General Principles of Antidepressant Use: Suicide, Mania & Serotonin Syndrome 7:51 – Tricyclic Antidepressants 9:10 – TCA Side Effects 10:40 – SSRIs 11:47 – SSRI Side Effects 13:01 - SNRIs 13:33 – Atypicals: Bupropion, Mirtazapine & Trazadone Antidepressant mechanism - One hypothesis for the pathophysiology of depression is that it is due to low levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (mainly serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine). That is why antidepressants aim to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft. They do this by slowing the reuptake of the neurotransmitters so that they stay in the cleft longer and interact with post synaptic receptors more often. The first drugs in this group were non-specific and increased all of the monoamines, which lead to lots of side effects and safety issues related to toxicity. Newer antidepressants are more selective and mostly only effect 1 or 2 monoamines. General principles: Unfortunately, antidepressants take at least a month to start working. Good patient education about the delayed onset of effect and close monitoring of the patient during this initial period is extremely important. Patients can become hopeless if they expect the drug to start working right away. This may be one reason why antidepressants are associated with suicide, especially in patients 25 years old and younger. Another proposed mechanism is that a depressed person may have the energy to carry out their suicide once the medications start to work. There is now a black box warning for suicide on antidepressants. Some psychiatrists argue that they don’t actually see this association with suicide in clinical practice, and that the thing that really increases the risk for suicide is not treating a depressed person with the proper medications. However, it is still standard practice to have a close follow up with patients you are starting on antidepressants. Usually this will involve a follow up visit about 2 weeks after the medication is started. At this visit the drug will not have started working yet so you can’t evaluate efficacy, but you can monitor for side effects like suicidality. Another serious side effect you have to be on the lookout for soon after initiating treatment is mania. If a bipolar individual is incorrectly diagnosed as having depression, an antidepressant may induce a manic episode. Another very serious side effect that has to be considered for antidepressants is Serotonin Syndrome. This usually occurs when you combined multiple antidepressants at the same time or combine an antidepressant with another medication that increases serotonin such as dextromethorphan or an opioid. It presents with tremor, diaphoresis, tachycardia, flushing and hypertension. If not corrected it can progress to delirium, AMS and death. Treatment includes medication cessation and the use of Cyproheptadine (a serotonin antagonist). In order to prevent this from happening you should have about a month “Wash Out” period when you are switching between antidepressants. So you taper the 1st medication down and then stop it, give the patient at least a month with no antidepressant and then start adding the new medication slowly. Most side effects begin immediately after starting the medication, but diminish over the course of a month. This is another reason why patient compliance is poor with these meds. It makes them sick and the drug doesn’t work during the first few weeks. However, if they can stick with it the medications will likely start working and the side effects will diminish over time. A principle that applies to all of the antidepressants is “start low and go slow.” This means that you start with a lower dose and slowly increase it in order to decrease side effects and increase patient compliance. The dose you start the patient on may not even be at a therapeutic level, but every month or so you can increase the dose a bit. The text for this video is too long and exceeds the max allowed character length for Youtube. You can read the rest here 🤍 Pictures Used: • “SynapseSchematic” by Thomas Splettstoesser available at 🤍 via Creative Commons 4.0 Attribution-Share Alike • “Zoloft Bottles” by Ragesoss available at 🤍 via Public Domain

Brain Plasticity: The Effects of Antidepressants on Major Depression

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Each month The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation hosts a Meet the Scientist Webinar featuring a researcher discussing the latest findings related to mental illness. In January, 2019, the Foundation featured Dr. J. John Mann of the Columbia University Medical Center. Description: Depression changes the brain. Imaging studies have reported thinning of the cortex, while structures such as the hippocampus show a loss of gray matter possibly associated with the loss of neurons and fewer neuronal connections. In mice, stress shrinks the hippocampus due to neuronal loss and smaller neurons and antidepressants increase the hippocampus back to pre-stress or to normal size and numbers of neurons increase. Dr. Mann's lab finds similar effects in comparing treated and untreated depression and seeks new targets for antidepressants. We need to better understand how antidepressants including SSRIs, lithium, and ketamine exert their therapeutic effects, so we can find newer more effective and rapidly acting treatments for depression. Learn more at 🤍 Visit us on the web: 🤍 If you like this presentation, please share it!

How do SSRIs Work?

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In our journey to understand the roots of anxiety and depression, Dr. Joe illuminates the often misunderstood world of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and their role in changing the biological domain. From Episode 50 - The Zeigarnik Effect 🤍

How do SSRIs and their side effects affect the brain?

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Hi everyone! This video looks at the biology behind the therapeutic effects and side effects of SSRIs (antidepressants), including: short-term anxiety, suicide risk, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, and insomnia. I hope you enjoy :) My new website!! avamason.com Email (collaboration/proofreading/feedback for assignments & applications): neuropsych🤍avamason.com 0:00 intro 1:08 SSRI main effects intro 2:08 Main effect- cognitive 2:55 Main effect- biology 3:54 Main effect- delayed response 4:57 Anxiety & suicide risk- biology 10:48 Sexual dysfunction- biology 14:27 Sexual dysfunction strategies 15:34 Weight gain- biology 17:15 Weight gain strategies 17:34 Insomnia 18:11 Summary References Harmer, C. J., & Cowen, P. J. (2013). ‘It's the way that you look at it’—a cognitive neuropsychological account of SSRI action in depression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1615), 20120407. Clayton, A. H., Croft, H. A., & Handiwala, L. (2014). Antidepressants and sexual dysfunction: mechanisms and clinical implications. Postgraduate medicine, 126(2), 91-99. Prabhakar, D., & Balon, R. (2010). How do SSRIs cause sexual dysfunction. Curr Psychiatry, 9(12), 30-34. Atmaca, M. (2020). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: current management perspectives. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 16, 1043. Jiang, X., Chen, A., Smerin, S., Zhang, L., & Li, H. (2011). Pharmacology of 5-ht2 modulation of amygdala & hypothalamus in anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders, 39-50. Adams, K. H., Hansen, E. S., Pinborg, L. H., Hasselbalch, S. G., Svarer, C., Holm, S., ... & Knudsen, G. M. (2005). Patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8(3), 391-401. Stahl, S. M. (1998). Mechanism of action of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors: serotonin receptors and pathways mediate therapeutic effects and side effects. Journal of affective disorders, 51(3), 215-235. Moraes, W. A. D. S., Burke, P. R., Coutinho, P. L., Guilleminault, C., Bittencourt, A. G., Tufik, S., & Poyares, D. (2011). Sedative antidepressants and insomnia. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 33(1), 91-95. Harvey, B. H., & Bouwer, C. D. (2000). Neuropharmacology of paradoxic weight gain with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clinical neuropharmacology, 23(2), 90-97. 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍

Depression sufferers who can't take medication can use new technology that improves symptoms

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This pandemic has caused many people to suffer from depression but for those who can't take antidepressants, a new technology called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation can literally stimulate the brain and change the way it functions, permanently improving their depression

Serotonin and Treatments for Depression, Animation.

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What is Serotonin? How to Increase Serotonin Levels without Drugs? This video is available for instant download licensing here : 🤍 Voice by: Sue Stern ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia How to raise brain serotonin without drugs. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a neurotransmitter involved in many brain and body functions and is commonly known as the substance of well-being and happiness. Serotonin is produced in specialized neurons found mostly in the Raphe nuclei located along the midline of the brainstem. The axons of these neurons form extensive serotonergic pathways that reach almost every part of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and the spinal cord. This is why it’s not surprising that serotonin is implicated in a vast array of brain functions, including sleep and wake cycle, appetite, mood regulation, memory and learning, temperature control, … among others. Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and is stored in small vesicles within the nerve terminal. When a serotonergic neuron is stimulated, serotonin is released into the synaptic cleft where it binds to and activates serotonin-receptors on the postsynaptic neuron. Serotonin action is then TERMINATED via removal of its molecules from the synaptic space. This is accomplished through a special protein called serotonin-transporter. Low levels of serotonin in the brain have been associated with depressive disorders and current treatments for depression aim to increase these levels. The most commonly prescribed medications, called “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors”, or SSRIs, act by blocking serotonin reuptake by the transmitting neurons. This results in elevated levels of serotonin in the synaptic space and its prolonged action on the receiving neuron. The SSRIs have developed into the drugs of choice because they produce fewer side effects thanks to their selective action on serotonin alone and no other neurotransmitters. Unfortunately, because serotonin is involved in a wide range of brain functions, the side effects remain significant and may progress to a potentially dangerous condition known as "serotonin syndrome". This syndrome is generally caused by a combination of two or more drugs used to raise the serotonin levels in the brain. If the medications are not discontinued, the condition may become fatal. Nonpharmacologic methods of raising brain serotonin have shown promising results in recent studies. It has been suggested that positive mood induction, either self-induced or due to psychotherapy, correlates with INCREASED serotonin synthesis in the brain. The interaction between serotonin synthesis and mood may therefore be 2-way, with serotonin influencing mood and mood influencing serotonin. Other methods include exposure to bright light and tryptophan-rich diets. To note, however, that serotonin-rich food such as bananas would NOT work because serotonin, unlike tryptophan, can NOT cross the blood brain barrier. Finally, although it sounds like a cliché, physical exercise maybe the most effective and safest way of improving mood. Several studies suggest that serotonin levels are increased with vigorous physical activity and that these elevated levels are maintained for several days after the exercise.

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